Quatorze Juillet 2014

Quatorze juillet is also known as la fête nationale de la France. English speaking countries often refer to this most important day as Bastille Day. The French National Day commemorates the beginning of the French Revolution with the Storming of the Bastille on 14 July  1789, as well as Fête de la Federation which celebrated the unity of the French people on 14 July 1790. The celebrations will be held in every city, town and village around the Country.

apéritif
apéritif
Get there early and reserve a spot!
Get there early and reserve a spot while the DJ sets up!
À la table
À la table – Vivienne seems to be enjoying herself!
Mangez!
Mangez!

The evening was hosted by the Club de chasseurs (Hunters Club).  No doubt the main item on the menu, sanglier – Wild boar, was hunted down by the members. The sanglier are known to do a lot of damage to the vineyards. The sanglier was presented in a sauce with white beans on the side. The entrée was a small plate of charcuterie (sliced meats) and salad was served after the fresh baugettes were passed around as well as bottles of red and rosé wine and plenty of water.  Afterward more baugettes are passed out as is the cheese course. Ice cream and then a cafe´ rounded off the meal.

Up behind the chateau, the pompiers are busy preparing the feux d’artifice or fireworks. Once the fireworks are finished, tables and chairs are rapidly moved as the large round cement area is cleared for dancing.

No age limits on the dance floor!
No age limits on the dance floor!

 

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Party!
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…into the wee hours!
Dance,  dance, dance!
Dance, dance, dance!
Amusements in the background
Amusements in the background
Barbe à papa (Papa's beard) or Cotton Candy!
Barbe à papa (Papa’s beard) or Cotton Candy!
hey Macarena!
hey Macarena!

Thank you for enjoying 14 Juillet with us here in France.

Bisous,

 

 

Léa

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2013 Retrospection

December:Exposition - Jean Savy
December:Exposition – Jean Savy

While I don’t want to dwell in the past, I do want to have some good memories of the past year and many of those will be incapsulated in blog posts.

November: Chateau Durban
November: Chateau Durban

There was a long pause due to hospitalisation so the photo for April was actually from March.

I wish to thank you all for stopping by, commenting, clicking the Like button or sending others my way. Here is to all of you in 2014.

Bonne année et bonne santé!

Bisous,

Léa

October:  Cees at the Vendange in Embres
October: Cees at the Vendange in Embres
September: Paper Mill
September: Paper Mill
Patric and friends
August:  Patric l’homme de la Renaissance
July: Fête Nationale
July: Fête Nationale
June: Giverny - Monet's Garden
June: Giverny – Monet’s Garden
May: Linda Bastide - Poet, Author, Cultural Ambassador...
May: Linda Bastide – Poet, Author, Cultural Ambassador…
April: Sunset at Saint Malo
April: Sunset at Saint Malo
March: Musée Lapidaire Narbonne
March: Musée Lapidaire Narbonne
January: Cabarét
January: Cabaret
February: Musée Charles Cros - Poet, Inventor...
February: Musée Charles Cros – Poet, Inventor…

MUSÉE 1900

Musée 1900
Musée 1900
Hairstyle anyone?
Hairstyle anyone?

Visit the 1900’s while during a visit to one of the most beautiful villages in France, Lagrasse! Take a tour with an audio guide into a fascinating period and surround yourself in the enchanted period of Belle Epoque!

Theatre anyone?
Theatre anyone?

A decade ago, Cyril and Isabelle Codina, winegrowers came up with a different way to share their passions and provide their guests with a delightful trip in time and the opportunity to sample their wares. What you will experience here is a family project with several generations contributing to its success. The passion of parent who have accumulated a vast treasure of objects from a bygone era. There are over 3000 dolls, many toys, tools for a vast variety of uses. There is a coiffure/barber shop and furniture shop well stocked as you would have found them at the end of the nineteenth century. The proprietors with the assistance of masons, cabinet makers, ironworkers and seven artists worked for over three years to bring this vision to fruition. The museum is over 300 sq. meters and accessible to all.

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Hats, Jewelry

Collections are divided into scenes of life. There is a theatre, school, The different collections are divided into scene of life: the school, the home of master, the back kitchen of the winegrower ¦ or still in old trades: coopers, bazaar, headgear, watch-making, jewelry … Pigeonnier: In 1900 pigeons were important to the vigneron. Special housing was created for them removed from the village. There droppings were a threat to water sources  but they were also valuable as fertilizer, eggs and meat. These pigeon huts were quite detailed to encourage the birds to stay

A few of the many dolls
A few of the many dolls

and nest. Actually, the accommodations were much less primitive that the vignerons own housing. TASTING WITH CYRIL The museum 1900 offers you several courses of tastings to theme, derived solely from our artisanal production. 1 Route: red and white wine. The more fruity (carbonic maceration) to wine of custody (breeding in new barrique). 2nd course: 19 different vinegars. This atypical, original and fun allows you to travel quality products acidity, sugar, texture and flavour. 3rd course: spirits as the guignolet, Cartagena, vendange tardive … several ways to create the aperitifs or digestifs to craft methods and

Vinegar making
Vinegar making

ancestral. 4th course: the olive oils: 4 varieties of olive oils. They include the local varieties: Lucca, oliviere. Some oils very surprising as the wild oil with its aromas and herbaceous oil assemble with its aromas slightly blites. There is something for everyone and then there is the surrounding village to explore. There are numerous delightful restaurants, shops, the abby and so much more. What is offered in this post is such a small part of what is on display.

Dolls that represent the moralities the child was expected to have
Dolls that represent the moralities the child was expected to have

Bisous, Léa

Would you care to taste...?
Would you care to taste…?
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Furniture maker
...
Pigeonnier
School days
School days
Models of area circa 1900
Models of area circa 1900

Le Moulin à Papier: Part III

Continued from Part II

Sieve
Sieve

The Dutch pile has been filled with the previously smashed paste inside the millstone grinder.

Dutch pile produces a very thick past that must be diluted in a tank. The resulting product will be 1 – 3 percent paste concentrate and 97 – 99 percent paste solution. A sieve is used to separate the fibres. A sieve is used to separate the fibres from the water. Each sieve is crafted by professionals and are imported from England. The tightened brass wires keep them parallel to each other with thick embossed seams.  The sieve consists of a thin plain metal canvas to create a vellum paper. The paper-maker attaches a wire to the canvas. The wire’s pattern gives the pieces of information on the paper’s size and who created it ( eagle, bell…). The removable frame cover fits the sieve and gives the paper shape and thickness. There are frames to form special papers, envelopes and other shapes.  The marks are called watermarks.

Sheets drying on the ropes
Sheets drying on the ropes

With the paste diluted, the fibres are mixed with a stick then the sieve is quickly plunged into the tank. As the water begins to drain off the sheet of paper is formed. The sheet is laid on a piece of woollen felt. One hundred sheets is called a ‘porse’. The more the past is diluted the thinner the page will be. Increase the paste for thickness.

When the sheets are piled without the felt it creates cardboard.

Drying: The sheets are lifted with a wooden stick and hung on ropes. The thicker the sheet of paper the longer the drying time. The other factor is the weather. It can vary from a few hours in the summer to several days in the winter. The sheets are lifted with a stick and brushed onto plain warm boards or on brick walls warmed by the fire in Japan. In

Drying garments, pages and other creative projects
Drying garments, pages and other creative projects

Brousses inspiration is taken from the Japanese method. The paper is laid on a synthetic material and then compressed and hung on the dryer. When the drying is complete, the pages are unstuck. The paper is flatter and smoother. If a coarse-grained paper is desired the sheet is layed on a coarser grained felt.

Once the paper has dried it has the consistency of blotting paper and must be waterproofed. The gluing is a process of applying a coating of gelatine. However, the process has changed and currently the gelatine is added to the paper-paste.

Smoothing: Pages require smoothing once they come out of the dryer. They are not smooth or flat. Today they are compressed within a few hours on the hydraulic compressor.

Coloured paper: A coloured paper is made from cotton cloths. White paper is made with lightened cellulose. Brown pages are created from plants or animal dung.

One of the dresses worn at the Paper Lovers Night!
One of the dresses worn at the Paper Lovers Night!

Large sheets: The special sheets, 3.4 meters long by 2.2 meters wide were specially crafted here at Brousses. Six to eight people are required to handle the special sieve. There is also a special tank that is assembled for when it is required.

The dresses were created by the visual artist, Catherine Cappeau, and worn every 14th August for a special musical event, Paper Lovers’ Night or in French Nuit des Papyvores.

Bisous,

Léa

All in a stunning setting! Make a day of it.
All in a stunning setting! Make a day of it.

Le Moulin à Papier: Part II

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Paper was invented in the 2nd century B.C. by the Chinese. In 400 A.D. the Japanese and the Koreans were utilizing blackberry bushes by taking the shoots, steaming them and peeling them and left to soak in water until very soft and pliable. This is then boiled off in a mixture of ashes and water then laid out on smooth surfaces and beaten with sticks until a paste is obtained. This paste is diluted and then prepared to become a sheet of paper.

The monopoly to create paper was maintained by Asia for nine hundred years!

It was until 751 A.D. when Chinese prisoners in the battle of Tales gave up the secret to the world of Islam. As the knowledge to create paper spread in the Arabic world it also spread to the Western world where the paste was created from flax and hemp utilising rags or plants.

The vital component of paper paste is cellulose which is found in every plant.

Since the mid nineteenth century, cellulose has been extracted from its plant/wood source by the use of chemical treatments. This method dissolves the plants flesh and what remains is the cellulose.

In nature, the cellulose is brown. By treating the past with chlorine, a white paper was achieved. A lesser quality paper is achieved by retaining some of the plant’s flesh and the texture is the type of newspaper.

Paper without chemicals is possible. A man named Tripot took out a patent to create paper from horse dung in 1841 after noting that animals such as deer, cattle and antelopes did not digest cellulose. A factory in Paris turned out paper made from dung.  The mill here in Brousses has been making their handcrafted papers from elephant dung supplied by the African Reserve located in Sigean and the dung of horses.

Millstone
Millstone beneath a paper gown

Up until the mid 1800’s, paper paste had only been made from hemp, cotton and flax rags. (ropes, cloth…).However, in the present at Brousses mill paper is made mostly of rags (cotton). Plates of cellulose are purchased from a provider in the Ariège region. This is necessary as currently, fabrics no longer contain either flax or hemp. The factory receives tons of flax and hemp plants every week which they extract the cellulose with chemicals, whiten and make paper or compact paste. This cellulose can be used just like a rag.

The colour of the paper will depend on the colour of the rag product. Blue paper is frequently made from blue jeans (cotton) and black from black cloth. Brousses mill never uses colouring agents.

Rags into paper: Rags: old clothing or other materials are stripped of buttons, zippers and even the seams are cut. Then the rags are cut into strips and sorted by colour and wear.

Then the rags are soaked in tanks

After a 2 – 6 week soak (fermentation) and impurities have been “burned” removed, the rags are set to become paste. Then they are cut into very small pieces and lain on large plates.

Mallet Pile: Invented in Italy toward the end of the 13th century and the beginning of mechanization. A bucket wheel drives an axis which drives the mallets in three tanks. Eight to ten kilos of rags are thrown into the first tank. Over a period of 20 hours the rags are smashed repeatedly by hammers which are covered with sharp nails. The rags are then transferred to a second tank where hammers with flat-headed nails refine the fibres that SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERAremain. In the third tank leather covered hammers refine the paste even further. While this machine accomplishes its task quite well, it is very noisy and time consuming.

Dutch pile: Invented in 1670 in Holland the Dutch pile or Crushing cylinder. They were initially driven by bucket wheels then later switched to turbine. Tanks were filled with 50 kilos of unfermented rags and 1,000 litres of water. The wooden cylinder attached with metal strips kneads the rags rubbing them agains other strips of metal or “platen” which are in the bottom of the tank. Due to a clamping screw, the cylinder can be lowered onto the platen. The result is that the paper-maker is capable of crushing the fibres while refining the paste numerous times utilizing the same machine. This machine is still working in numerous paper mills today.

Millstone grinder: This is driven by electrical power. The granite millstones weigh 3.3 tons each. The heaviest lays on the bottom of the tank weigh 4 tons each. It takes the millstone grinder one and a half hours to crush 300 kilos of moistened fibers, which was to recycle old papers.

Dutch pile and millstone grinder: Paste circulates inside the Dutch pile and covers the cylinder. The paste is ready. The plug is removed and allows the paste to flow down into a lower tank then onto the paper machine where water is added to the paste. The Dutch pile has been filled with the previously smashed paste inside the millstone grinder.

Dutch pile produces a very thick past that must be diluted in a tank. The resulting product will be 1 – 3 percent paste concentrate and 97 – 99 percent paste solution. A sieve is used to separate the fibres. A sieve is used to separate the fibres from the water. Each sieve is crafted by professionals and are imported from England. The tightened brass wires keep them parallel to each other with thick embossed seams.  The sieve consists of a thin plain metal canvas to create a vellum paper. The paper-maker attaches a wire to the canvas. The wire’s pattern gives the pieces of information on the paper’s size and who created it ( eagle, bell…). The removable frame cover fits the sieve and gives the paper shape and thickness. There are frames to form special papers, envelopes and other shapes.  The marks are called watermarks.

With the paste diluted, the fibres are mixed with a stick then the sieve is quickly plunged into the tank. As the water begins to drain off the sheet of paper is formed. The sheet is laid on a piece of woollen felt. One hundred sheets is called a ‘porse’. The more the past is diluted the thinner the page will be. Increase the paste for thickness.

When the sheets are piled without the felt it creates cardboard.

Drying: The sheets are lifted with a wooden stick and hung on ropes. The thicker the sheet the longer the drying time. The other factor is the weather. It can vary from a few hours in the summer to several days in the winter.

 

Bisous,

 

Léa

Paper garments
Paper garments
...

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Le Moulin à Papier: Part I

Le Moulin à Papier
Le Moulin à Papier: Entrance

The paper mill of Brousses is located in the Montagne Noir. The village and the mill are nearby Montolieu (village of books).

Once again with someone visiting, it was off and the paper mill was one we both had never seen. There is a tour and you can follow in French or English. I believe there may be printed tours in other languages but will leave there site information so that you may check should you be in the area.

Even without the paper mill, the trip is well worth making. The beauty is stunning and invites exploration, photography and perhaps a picnic.

Upon entering the mill we had a wait of but a few minutes before setting off on the tour. Yet due to the lush setting, it is a surprise we got in at all. The paths and the river beckoned me to continue wandering.

The Bucket Wheel: This water engine drove the paper machine which stands in the current shop up until 1981 and has produced electricity until the 1950’s. The bucket wheel and paddlewheel are both water engines.  – water falls down onto the bucket wheel to produce waterpower; this type of vertical wheel is primarily in the mountains. – the paddlewheel is driven by water running underneath and can be

The turbine
The turbine

found mostly in the plains.

The turbine: Upstream, the watercourse of the river “La Dure” is diverted through a canal and brought into a pond right above the mill. Prior to 1920, there had been three bucket wheels, one on each floor. In 1920, two wooden bucket wheels were replaced by turbine, due to the damage obtained with the period of inactivity during World War One.  The structure of the turbine consists of a horizontal wheel inside a cylindrical tank; water drives this wheel, which drives a horizontal axis and driving the machines on the upper level.

Watermarks: A watermark is a tiny lightness in the paper, where the paper is actually thinner. To obtain this lightness, the paper-maker lays a wire on the paper canvas; the result is that the paper past is less thick where the wire was placed. The paper-maker can create his own watermark… his signature! The first paper-maker was named Polère; he settled in Brousses in 1694.

The region of Carcassonne was renowned for its woollen fabrics. Among the Royal Factories who would produce fabrics, two were on the river La Dure.  The paper-makers produced cardboard used for the presses and leaves used to wrap the fabrics.

Watermark Window
Watermark Window

There were 617 water mills and hundreds of windmills spread out over the region. The river Dure was home to 67 waterwheels and 27 textile workshops. The village of Brousses alone was home to 12 watermills of which half were paper mills.

Today, the sole working paper mill in the region is Brousses. The Chaila family has been producing cardboards since 1820. They purchased the mill in 1877 and made paper from machines up until 1984. The seventh generation of the family made the decision to handcraft paper in 1994.

Watermarks were used to specify the size of the paper. Bell and grape were among the names to designate what are now standard sizes A4, A3 and others.

When paper was held against a light source the network of lines could be seen. You were assured that this was laid paper. If the paper were

Papyrus
Papyrus

plain it was called vellum paper. An imperfection or stain was a defect and known as the paper-maker’s tear. Normally, the paper is ecru-coloured. However, paper-makers frequently add some blue when combining the paper paste with the intention of increasing the whiteness of the product. When this has been done you can see the increased whiteness of the paper when the light has been turned off and it produces a vast difference.

The watermark on banknotes is created by a metal plate that the printer engraves, heats up then presses against the paper canvas. This results in an accumulation of paste in the hollow parts and they turn darker in colour. The flat parts which receive less of the paste will turn significantly lighter.

Papyrus: made from a water plant by the Egyptians around 3500 B.C. Stems from the plants were cut into long, thin and wide strips; these were tightly woven together.

Parchment: From the second century B.C. Pergamon, Asia The hides of various animals such as goats, sheep calf’s were used as writing paper. For a thinner product the hide of a calf that was born dead or died within a few days. This higher quality hide was thinner and whiter.

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Bisous,

Léa

Guide holding form alongside atub of paper past for dipping
Guide holding form alongside atub of paper past for dipping
Forms, paper paste and cloths for drying
Forms, paper paste and cloths for drying
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...
Guide begins documentary beneath paper garments
Guide begins documentary beneath paper garments
Formed page will be placed on damp cloth to dry slowly
Formed page will be placed on damp cloth to dry slowly

Fête Nationale / Bastille Day / quatorze juillet

Arrive early to choose your seat
Arrive early to choose your seat

When it is spoken of in English speaking countries, 14 July is usually called Bastille Day or (French National Day). Here in France, it is La quatorze juillet (14 July) or La Fête Nationale (Formal name). The actual storming of the bastille was 14 July 1889

The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the heart of Paris. On the morning of 14 July 1789, the people stormed the building and released the seven prisoners it contained at the time. Yet this action had nothing to do with the number of inmates but the fact that the storming was a symbol of the abuses of the monarchy and was the critical stage which erupted into the French Revolution.

Make reservations?
Make reservations?

There were three events that led up to the revolution. First was the revolt of the nobility, refusal to aid King Louis XVI by withholding taxes, the second was formation of the National Assembly and the third event was the storming of the Bastille and the ensuing Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Grab a beverage and start socialising!
Grab a beverage and start socialising!

The masses formed the National Guard, sporting tricolour or cockades (cocardes) ribbons knotted together of red, blue and white. These cockades and soon the color scheme itself, become symbol of the revolution and continue today as symbol of France itself.

A few are beginning to take their seats...
A few are beginning to take their seats…

While the date for the destruction of the Bastille was indeed 14 July 1789, the date for French National Day was actually 14 July, 1790 to commemorate the 1790 Fête de la Fédération. It is a symbol of the uprising of the modern nation and reconciliation of all French inside the constitutional monarchy which preceded the First Republic during the French Revolution. Celebrations are held all over France.  A largest and oldest military parade in Europe is held on the morning of 14 July, on the Champs-Élysées avenue in Paris in front of the President of the Republic, French officials and foreign quests.

A Counsel member chats with the DJ - a band takes over when the meal is finished!
A Counsel member chats with the DJ – a band takes over when the meal is finished!

 

In most cities outside of Paris, there is usually a small ceremony at the monument for those who gave their lives in WWI and WWII. In the evenings there will be fireworks. In our village, the are shot from the ancient castle behind my home.

A great view of the castle and fireworks
A great view of the castle and fireworks

Here in my small village, there will be a meal (repas) attended by all who wish. Each year a different village organization takes charge of preparing the dinner, selling tickets procuring music and everything else that is involved. As the meal comes to a close fireworks are shot from the village chateau. The tables and chairs get moved way back and the dancing goes on well into the morning. Despite the fact that I was, once again, invited to spend the day in Carcassonne where there is the second largest fireworks display outside Paris. However, the evening with my friends and neighbors cannot be matched by a mere firework display. It is one day I truly do not want to be anywhere else.

Henri et Georgette - await their respective spouses
Henri et Georgette – await their respective spouses
Christiane, Serge et Pierrette
Christiane, Serge (the respective spouses and friend) et Puerto
After a great meal, fireworks begin
After a great meal, fireworks begin
And the dancing begins
And the dancing begins
Dance the night away... at least until 5am
Dance the night away… at least until 5am
Trinkets for the little ones, a few small arcade games as well
Trinkets for the little ones, a few small arcade games as well
Barbe à papa (Papa's beard) AKA Cotton Candy
Barbe à papa (Papa’s beard) AKA Cotton Candy

Seating fills quickly but you can make a reservation by stationing someone from your group or by placing something at one point, tipping forward the chairs you will be using and also with a pen or marker put the name and number of guests you require seating for.  While this may sound simple, the claim is respected and your seats await you.

Chef station
Chef station

Bisous,

Léa

First course: melon with port
First course: melon with port
Everyone is in a festive mood!
Everyone is in a festive mood!
Meals take longer because there is real communication going on!
Meals take longer because there is real communication going on!
Bonsoir!
Bonsoir!
The place to be!
The place to be!
Feux d'artifice
Feux d’artifice!
Our chateau by night!
Our chateau by night!
Dance...
Dance…
Dance, dance, dance! The DJ won't stop for hours...
Dance, dance, dance!
The DJ won’t stop for hours…